Fernand Braudel was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: The Mediterranean (1923–49, then 1949–66), Civilization and Capitalism (1955–79), and the unfinished Identity of France (1970–85). His reputation stems in part from his writings, but even more from his success in making the Annales School the most important engine of historical research in France and much of the world after 1950. As the dominant leader of the Annales School of historiography in the 1950s and 1960s, he exerted enormous influence on historical writing in France and other countries.

Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of the modern historians who have emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history. He can also be considered as one of the precursors of world-systems theory.

Books in English in order of publication:

Capitalism and Material Life, 1400-18001973
Afterthoughts on Material Civilization and Capitalism1979
On History1982
The Identity of France: Vol. 1: History and Environment1990
Out of Italy: 1450-16501991
Civilization and Capitalism 15th-18th Century, Vol. 1: The Structures of Everyday Life1992
Civilization and Capitalism 15th-18th Century, Vol 2: The Wheels of Commerce1992
Civilization and Capitalism 15th-18th Century, Vol. 3: The Perspective of the World1992
A History of Civilizations1995
The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, Volume I1996
Memory and the Mediterranean1998
The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, Volume II2000
Out of Italy2019